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5 AI Secrets: How Failing to Innovate Can Doom Your Business

Updated: Feb 20

As Clayton Christensen outlined in “The Innovator's Dilemma,” even industry giants can fall victim to disruptive innovations if they fail to adapt. A decade ago, the taxi industry seemed unassailable, a fixture of urban mobility with its familiar yellow cabs and the ritual of hailing a ride on city streets. Then came the digital wave of Uber and Lyft, leveraging smartphone technology and GPS to transform personal transport. These platforms offered a level of convenience, pricing, and user experience previously unimaginable, challenging the traditional taxi industry’s stronghold and illustrating the very essence of disruptive innovation. Driven by artificial intelligence, similar seismic shifts are happening all around us - and many successful companies are so focused on current customers’ needs and immediate financial performance, that they are overlooking or underestimating this disruptive tech.

Image AI/Human Partnership=Dr Lisa + ChatGPT + Canva

AI’s capabilities are revolutionizing healthcare with precise diagnostics and tailored treatments, redefining financial services through enhanced fraud detection and personalized customer interactions, overhauling transportation with autonomous vehicles and optimized logistics, and disrupting the retail sector by personalizing the shopping experience and optimizing inventory management. Moreover, AI is transforming the education sector, enabling personalized learning paths and revolutionizing teaching methodologies. Quite literally - no industry is untouched by AI. As this technology continues advancing at Mach speed, businesses across every sector must face the "AI dilemma."

My recent doctoral research provides a roadmap for overcoming this challenge. Through studying 46 real-world AI situations, I identified five critical success pillars that enabled some companies to thrive while others languished.

This blog post weaves together insights from these two seminal works, Christensen's "The Innovator's Dilemma" and my doctoral study. I explore how applying my five pillars can help businesses harness the transformative power of AI while avoiding becoming victims of disruption. Are you - and your organization - prepared to win in our AI-driven future?

Pillar 1: Focus on Value Creation over “Toy AI”

A pivotal insight from my research underscores the significance of leveraging AI to tackle real-world business challenges, steering clear of the allure of "toy AI" solutions. This principle is vividly illustrated by Gopalan Oppiliappan from Intel, who showcased the profound impact of AI in solving a quintessential supply chain issue—inventory optimization. He highlighted, “…optimizing the spare parts for our factories… the classic supply chain problem... there are situations where the spare parts available were not adequate to meet the factory demand. And whenever there was an excess... we had to write off those inventories.” This example epitomizes the essence of value creation through AI, addressing substantial operational challenges rather than pursuing innovation for its own sake.

Reflecting on Christensen’s dichotomy of disruptive versus sustaining innovations, it's evident that many organizations, especially incumbents, tend to gravitate towards sustaining innovations—improvements that cater to the existing demands of their customer base, neglecting the transformative potential of disruptive technologies. This inclination is mirrored in numerous initial AI endeavors, where the focus is on incremental enhancements rather than leveraging AI for significant impact.

Successful implementations, however, use AI as a strategic tool for value creation, concentrating on identifying and solving critical business problems. Whether it’s enhancing customer service, optimizing warehouse operations, or refining financial processes, the aim is to apply AI in meaningful ways that drive tangible benefits. By prioritizing problem-solving over technology for technology's sake, businesses can differentiate meaningful innovation from futile investment, aligning with Christensen’s insight on embracing disruptive innovations to remain competitive in an ever-evolving market landscape.

Pillar 2: Be Customer-Driven

My research underscored that the most successful AI implementations are those with a laser focus on customer needs, prioritizing solutions that directly solve meaningful problems for target users, whether they are internal team members or external customers. When faced with questions about where to apply resources, organizational AI high performers prioritized based upon identified customer needs, which were often specific customer pain points. This customer-centric approach consistently creates more impactful outcomes than initiatives focused on the technology itself.

Aligning with Christensen's insights from "The Innovator's Dilemma," disruptors often succeed by focusing on needs that incumbents have ignored. My research highlighted the effectiveness of deeply understanding customer needs through direct engagement methods such as focus groups, interviews, or frequent check-ins with users. This approach not only aids in uncovering unmet needs but also helps in crafting AI solutions that are precisely tailored to address those needs, preventing scope creep and ensuring that the technology serves a meaningful purpose.

This principle of being customer-driven was vividly exemplified by Debjani Deb, CEO of ZineOne, an AI-based personalization firm, who stressed the importance of transparency and customer relevance in AI applications: "You don't want to treat any ML algorithm as a black box. [That] doesn't…help the outcome you're trying to achieve. You want…explainable and deliverable ROI generation and…satisfying the consumer you…serve." This quote emphasizes the critical need for AI solutions to be understandable and directly beneficial to the end users, ensuring that efforts are aligned with solving actual customer problems and generating tangible value.

Ultimately, successful AI efforts prioritize solutions based on customer needs—whether addressing existing pain points or innovating for a completely new customer experience. This approach ensures that technology acts as a lever for boosting customer satisfaction and loyalty. Organizations that stood out in my research for the successful application of AI were those that invested heavily in user research, adopting the strategy of disruptors to differentiate themselves from competitors, that Christensen describes. By maintaining a sharp focus on delivering value - as perceived by customers - these organizations not only achieved impactful results in the short term but also positioned themselves for sustained value creation as market dynamics quickly evolve.

Pillar 3: Build Collaborative Cross-Functional Teams

My research surfaced that successful AI implementations require building inclusive, cross-functional teams that encompass a wide range of perspectives to guide projects from inception to completion. This approach not only underscores the need for diversity of thought and experience, but also aligns with Christensen's observation that disruptive innovators tap a broader range of perspectives. Marco Bizzarri, the President and CEO of Gucci - an organization known for disrupting the fashion industry with new technologies and platforms such as hosting a fashion launch event in the Metaverse, underscored this sentiment when he said that “Diversity and inclusion, which are the real grounds for creativity, must remain at the center of what we do.”

When considering which individuals need to be included on your AI teams, take note that traditional corporate hierarchies that segregate roles impede the flow of holistic insights. It's essential for organizations, especially those navigating through disruptive phases, to blend modern technical expertise with a deep respect for existing infrastructures and processes. The most impactful AI projects bring together these varied representative voices at the earliest stages. For instance, an industrial manufacturer adopted a committee approach, integrating engineers, plant floor specialists, and a multitude of other roles, to communicate constraints and collaboratively design AI solutions. This strategy effectively countered the pitfalls of "toy AI" initiatives that fail to mesh with real-world workflows, a challenge some firms face when they attempt to innovate in isolation.

Rudina Seseri, Founder & Managing Partner at Glasswing Ventures, an early-stage venture capital firm, underscored the need for a collaborative spirit: "Customers often take meetings with AI companies even when they don't intend to undertake a project to use these discussions as education. To learn." This observation highlights the educational value of cross-functional collaboration, where even exploratory conversations can serve as a learning platform, fostering an environment that champions diverse perspectives for innovative problem-solving.

Such a cross-pollination approach not only mitigates risks but also fosters a culture where learning from failures is as valued as achieving success. It bridges the gap between technical possibilities and practical necessities, ensuring that AI solutions are both innovative and applicable. My findings reinforce that integrating varied skills and insights through teamwork is not just beneficial - but crucial - for the successful application of AI, echoing the ethos that navigating AI's potential requires a blend of technical acumen and broad-based collaboration.

Pillar 4: Leverage Data as a Strategic Asset

Christensen discussed how disruptors draw value from resources incumbents overlook. My research found this rings true regarding internal data as well. The most successful AI innovators tapped into rich seams of underutilized company data. Simply amassing large volumes of information is not enough - the most impactful implementations ensured data was structured and governed to support machine learning applications.

Nikunj Mehta, CEO of Falkonry, an AI services firm, highlighted a significant hurdle faced by industries and organizations who typically lag regarding data use: "Industry variances can create challenges such as a lack of sensors and devices to collect real-time data on industrial equipment which can inhibit AI adoption in laggard industries." This statement sheds light on the necessity of not only having access to internal data but also ensuring it is actionable and accessible, even in industries where data collection faces technological constraints.

To stay competitive in the face of disruption, companies must transcend the common pitfalls of siloing data or overlooking the complexities of making it useful. Ignoring these valuable data resources means missing out on critical insights that could drive strategic decisions and innovation. Further, fostering a culture that views unified, high-quality data as a cornerstone for value creation marks the distinction between companies that leverage AI effectively and those that lag. Rigorous data management practices are essential for unveiling opportunities where AI can significantly enhance decision-making processes and alter the customer experience.

By mining underused information already within their operations, businesses can strategically apply AI to gain competitive advantage. This approach mirrors Christensen’s assertion that disruptors draw game-changing benefits from readily available resources that incumbents discount and emphasizes the strategic importance of internal data as a pivotal asset in the era of AI.

Pillar 5: Foster a Culture of Learning and Experimentation

Christensen highlighted the importance of iterative learning through experimentation and even failure, a concept that is deeply relevant to AI adoption. My research reinforces that cultures that embrace agility, innovation, and the spirit of continuous refinement, are consistently more successful with AI integration. For organizations to navigate the disruptive potential of AI effectively, they must cultivate a culture characterized by the following key components:

  • Establishing a Culture of Innovation and Creativity: Encouraging an environment where new ideas and experimental approaches to solving problems are valued and pursued.

  • Incorporating AI Teams into the Fabric of the Organization: Ensuring that AI initiatives are integrated across departments, fostering collaboration and shared ownership of AI-driven outcomes.

  • Starting Small with AI Integration Projects for Trust-Building: Initiating with manageable, focused AI projects that can demonstrate quick wins and build confidence in the technology's potential.

  • Incorporating AI Governance and Ethical Frameworks: Implementing robust governance structures to guide AI development and usage, ensuring transparency, accountability, and adherence to ethical standards, as highlighted by Dr. Seth Dobrin's emphasis on governance as a means to operationalize agility and trust.

  • Using the Right Technology and Maintaining AI Models: Selecting appropriate technologies tailored to the organization's needs and maintaining AI models to ensure they continue to operate effectively and ethically over time.

According to my research insights, it's essential to embrace these principles, and generally adopt a mindset of continuous learning and adaptability. Also reflective of Christensen’s advice for mastering disruptive technologies, this prepares organizations to not just withstand potential disruptions but to harness them as catalysts for innovation. By fostering an environment that values hands-on engagement with AI—through pilot projects and iterative testing—businesses can develop the robust capabilities needed to leverage AI effectively and maintain competitiveness despite evolving challenges.


Today's world is characterized by rapid technological advances and the future outlook for AI's impacts feel boundless. This reality inspired me to leverage Christensen's "The Innovator's Dilemma" for this blog because he offers a prescient warning: adapt or be overtaken by disruptive innovations. His warning is well-grounded as we've experienced the rocket ship ascendancy of platforms like Uber, which upended the taxi industry by harnessing smartphone technology and GPS. Today, artificial intelligence (AI) is catalyzing similar seismic shifts across various sectors, from healthcare and finance to transportation and education, challenging businesses to confront the "AI dilemma."

To journey through this AI dilemma, I've offered the lens of my doctoral research that examined 46 real-world AI scenarios. Five critical success pillars for harnessing AI's transformative power are distilled below and you're encouraged to act upon them:

  1. Value Creation Over “Toy AI”: Focus on solving real and impactful business challenges, mirroring Christensen’s emphasis on disruptive versus sustaining innovations.

  2. Customer-Driven Solutions: Prioritize AI efforts that offer the most value to external and/or internal customers, reflecting Christensen’s insight on market responsiveness to disruption.

  3. Collaborative Cross-Functional Teams: Encourage diverse perspectives in AI projects by bringing together technical and operational expertise, echoing Christensen’s advice on how to achieve agility and innovation.

  4. Strategic Use of Data: Leverage your untapped data as a crucial asset for AI innovation, akin to Christensen’s view on utilizing underappreciated resources for competitive advantage.

  5. Culture of Learning and Experimentation: Foster an environment that embraces lifelong learning and iteration, resonating with Christensen’s call for companies to be adaptable and learn from the market.

This checklist serves as a practical guide for harnessing AI to not just withstand - but lead - in the face of disruption. Your industry may be the next taxis-become-Ubers tale. The actions you take now will determine your fate.

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